Monday, November 25, 2019

Corazon Aquino essays

Corazon Aquino essays Corazon Aquino,also known as "Cory", made an amazing accomplishment by becoming the first female president of the Philippines. She had to overcome many obstacles before she took on this major role. But in the end, her presidency contributed greatly to the way the Filipino government functions today. Corazon Aquino, the first woman president of the Philippines, made many positive changes in the country. On January 25, 1933, Corazon Aquino was born. She grew up in a wealthy family and had a very happy childhood. She had seven brothers and sisters. Cory lived in Manila until it was time for her to go to college. She studied in the U.S., and in 1953, graduated from Mt. St. Vincent with degrees in French and Math. She was elected to the honor society of Kappa Gamma Pi, an organization for women in catholic colleges who display moral character and good grades. She was very shy, but had a strong Returning to the Philippines, Cory enrolled in the College of Law in Manila. While she was there, she met Benigno Aquino. One year later, Benigno and Corazon were married. In the following years they had five children. Benigno was very involved in politics, and Cory was a quiet, shy housewife. Benigno later became the chief political rival of Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos extended his presidency beyond the constitutional limit of eight years and declared himself a dictator. He imprisoned the political leaders who opposed him. Therefore, Cory's husband was arrested and put in solidary confinement. When Benigno was freed, he had to go to the U.S. to undergo heart surgery. After three years in the U.S., Benigno returned home and was ready to help free the country from the dictatorship. On August 21,1983, his plane landed at the airport. An eyewitness on Benigno's same flight said she saw Benigno, with a group of so ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

LPN -BS TRANSITION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

LPN -BS TRANSITION - Essay Example There are three basic aspects that can be used to distinguish between these two levels of nurses: education, the amount of salary paid and their responsibilities. In terms of education, each level requires different educational approach from the other. Even though both RNs and LPN requires basic BS, the duration for completing the program differs. In United States of America, most institutions take between one and one and half years to train LPN nurse. On the other hand, it takes from two to three years to train RN nurse. Upon completion of the training, the RN nurse graduate with professional nursing degree while LPN nurse graduate with practical nursing degree. Therefore, both training results to an award of BS but it is clear that RN is advance more than LPN. The reason why RN training takes more time as compared to LPN training in universities and colleges is that RN has additional courses such as community health, biology as well as administrative courses (Sherri, Jean, Kathryn, & Katherine, 2012). Consequently, any student with an intention of becoming a RN must devote an additional studying time as opposed to LPNs. However, there are differences between RN and LPNs as far as responsibilities are concerned. Broadly, the RN supervises the operations of the LPNs. It is the responsibility of the LPNs to undertake the basic nursing roles of reporting to both the RN and doctor. In particularly, LPNs perform the following roles: administration of the basic nursing care, supporting the patients both socially and physically, reporting to supervisor any changes in a patient, and passing any information regarding treatment to a patient. It should be noted that LPNs are not allowed to perform certain duties such as initiation of IV in certain jurisdictions. Depending on the state, there are different strategies and legislations that

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Effective group discussion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Effective group discussion - Essay Example The agenda would involve discussion on the above topic/ question and determine whether the conjecture is supported by sufficient facts to make it a plausible outcome. Use of moderator and tape recorder would ensure that discussion progresses smoothly during the 30 minutes, allotted to the group. The two questions would be discussed to come determine the veracity of the topic. Two discussion questions would be: the possible penalty that can effectively serve as deterrent measure for speeding; and previous outcome of the penalty on the convicts (Ehrlich, 1973). 2 minutes would be allowed to each of 10 participants to give their reasons and 10 minutes would be used to make empowered decision by the group leader, based on the informed choices as presented by the participants. It is hoped that discussion would help determine the outcome of conjecture. The discussion would focus on 3 areas: the legal aspect of the process of euthanasia in different countries; the moral paradigm of practice of euthanasia; and the efficacy of methods used on patients with terminal illness (Emanual & Fairclaugh, 2000). A moderator would oversee that discussions proceed within the defined guidelines and make recordings of the same. The 6 participants would be given 2 minutes to present their facts and views. Rest of the times would be used to collate the facts and use brainstorming techniques to decide on the outcome. The group leader would ensure that facts and moral compulsions are judiciously used to determine the conditions under which conditions euthanasia can be made legal. The main agenda of discussion would involve discussing the situation on the broader context of healthcare accessibility to the marginalized population of poor countries and the ways it can be addressed by developed countries and corporations. The discussion would be of 30 minutes

Monday, November 18, 2019

A Research on Jamaica Queens Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

A on Jamaica Queens - Research Paper Example 0 3 9 7 29 36 16 100 109th Precinct 6 18 234 252 546 895 313 2,264 110th Precinct 4 45 397 225 436 741 167 2,015 111th Precinct 1 8 80 52 321 392 156 1,010 112th Precinct 3 6 116 50 267 595 167 1,204 114th Precinct 5 19 318 303 447 931 336 2,359 115th Precinct 5 36 345 261 407 629 273 1,956 Queens North 29 159 1,992 1,433 3,209 5,114 2,037 13,973 iii) Education: a) Public Elementary Schools: Jamaica's public schools, a branch of municipal government in New York City are operated by the New York City Department of Education under the New York City School Chancellor; Joel I. Klein, appointed by Mayor Michel Bloomberg in 2002. Public Elementary Schools in Jamaica include: P.S. 50 Talfourd Lawn Elemenatry School P.S. 86 P.S. 131 Abigal Adams Elementary School P.S. 160 P.S. 182 Samantha Smith b) Private Schools: Private schools in Jamaica include Archbishop Molloy High School The Mary Louis Academy, a private, Catholic, girls' high school run by the Sister of St. Joseph. Immaculate Conception School, a co-ed Catholic school from Pre-K to 8th grade. The school is a local landmark located on the property of Immaculate Conception Church and Monastery, run by The Passionist Congregation of Priests. c) Libraries: The Queens Borough Public Library, established in 1858, operates the Central Library in Jamaica and both the branches i.e. the Baisley Park Branch and the South Jamaica Branch are also located in Jamaica. It is considered as the No. 1 library system in the United States by circulation comprising 63 branches and having loaned 21 million items in the 2007 fiscal year. It also serves the population of more than 2.2 million, including the migrants who come down to refer this library which embraces large...Klein, appointed by Mayor Michel Bloomberg in 2002. Immaculate Conception School, a co-ed Catholic school from Pre-K to 8th grade. The school is a local landmark located on the property of Immaculate Conception Church and Monastery, run by The Passionist Congregation of Priests. The Queens Borough Public Library, established in 1858, operates the Central Library in Jamaica and both the branches i.e. the Baisley Park Branch and the South Jamaica Branch are also located in Jamaica. It is considered as the No. 1 library system in the United States by circulation comprising 63 branches and having loaned 21 million items in the 2007 fiscal year. It also serves the population of more than 2.2 million, including the migrants who come down to refer this library which embraces large percentage of non-English language books, particularly Spanish ones. It is governed by a 19-member Board of Trustees, which are appointed by the Mayor of the New York City and Borough President of Queens. The latter along with the Public advocate sit on the board as ex-officio members. The current director of the Queens Library is Thomas Galante. York College, a Senior College under the city of New York located in the borough of Queens after its set up in 1966. It was the first college funded under the newly formed City Union of New York. Now, more than 6,000 students in more than 40 bachelor's degree subjects are studying there. St John's University (Queens

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Benefits of Genetically Modified (GM) Foods to Human Health

Benefits of Genetically Modified (GM) Foods to Human Health Introduction Genetically modified food, also known as GM food refer to foodstuff such as animals or plants that had their genetic makeup altered to make them grow bigger, stay fresher and other benefits that will make human life more simple. The concept of genetically modified (GM) foods has existed for many years. Cross-breeding of plants, such as different types of corn, has been applied before with the purpose of transferring a desirable trait from one plant species to another (Whitman, 2000). However, a substantial amount of time is required to obtain a specific result. This is because all of the genes are pooled together and numerous attempts are required for the production of offsprings with the preferred trait. Tomatoes are the first GM crop introduced to the world. Tomatoes developed by Monsanto came into the market in 1994 after approval by the US FDA. In 2008, US FDA consultation procedures on bioengineered foods were completed by a total of 111 bioengineered food products. According to Grocery Manufacturers of America, genetically engineered plants are the ingredients for between 70 percent and 75 percent of all processes foods available in U.S. grocery stores (, n.d.). Advocates of GM foods such as economists, scientists, researchers hail from various sectors, as well as from agricultural and food industries. Although genetically modified foods arises many concerns regarding its safety and consequences of consumption, the real question posed by the society is whether these GM foods should be banned for the benefit of mankind. Even if GM foods have been known to trigger allergic reactions and toxicities, is environmentally hazardous and costly, it should not be banned because it is confirmed to be beneficial to human health, environmentally friendly and able to improve the quality and quantity of yields. This report is mainly focused on the benefits of GM food towards mankind. The reasons why GM foods should not be banned are as conveyed in this report. The comments and personal views of numerous professionals are included in this report to show the evident benefits of GM foods. This report is not confined to any particular region or country but is assessed from a global point of view. This is due to GM foods being present in almost all countries worldwide. Additionally, to fulfill ever-increasing needs of humans, conventional crops are genetically being replaced by GM crops. Benefits to human health GM food brings many advantages to mankind. First of all, GM food that was engineered genetically is able to sustain favorable human health and enrich the wellbeing of its consumers. This is because it can remove the malnutrition problem faced by the current world and GM crops can be modified to become edible vaccines to reduce vulnerability towards diseases. Malnutrition problems can be solved by introducing GM foods enhanced with nutrition that humans are lacked of, such as vitamin D and iron that will cause rickets in children or osteoporosis in aged adults as well as iron deficiency. Susceptibility to a certain disease can be reduced if edible vaccines are added into the GM foods such as the GM banana (Whitman, 2000). Hepatitis B can be prevented by eating such genetically modified bananas. 2.1 Solves malnutrition problems Genetically modified foods can remove malnutrition problems faced by mankind today. Vitamins and minerals can be inserted into GM crops such as GM rice to make humans healthier. GM rice contains high amounts of Vitamin A compared to non-GM rice. The enhancement of vitamin A in GM rice will be able to result in the treatment of diarrhea in infants to be significantly easier as well as reducing the likelihood of chances of humans being diagnosed with night blindness (Gola, 2005). The other malnutrition problem often faced by humans is iron deficiency. According to the World Health Organization (2009), approximately two billion people prove to be tested positive for iron deficiency. As such, researchers have invested in GM rice by intensifying the iron content in polished rice to solve the iron deficiency problem. The genes that were inserted into the GM foods have a positive effect on the accumulation of iron in the rice kernel that causes the GM rice to contain 6 times more iron compared to the original variety (ScienceDaily, 2009). 2.2 Some GM crops possess medical advantages Some GM crops are modified to become edible vaccines that can reinforce the immune system of humans. Some GM crops have been inserted with DNA sequences encoding for antibodies into their genome (Dickinson, 2009). This enables the crops to produce antibiotics in their cells. GM crops such as banana, tomato and potato have been altered to contain bacterial or rotavirus antigens. Large scaled immunizations can be made by introducing edible vaccines to patients, rendering the vaccinations of these diseases considerably easier, painless, and accessible. Per se, antibodies contained in such GM foods will be able to enhance the immune system of human bodies to combat against pathogens when consumed orally. Therefore, it will not be uncommon in the near future when humans can merely ingest GM tomatoes instead of waiting in line to see a doctor. Hazards to human health Opponents of GM foods claim that GM foods are potentially risky to human health. They assert that GM foods will trigger allergenicity in the human body should it be eaten. There is a possibility that a new allergen will be created and result in susceptible individuals exhibiting symptoms of allergic reactions when a foreign gene is introduced into a crop. Though so, this affirmation is weak. GM foods are genetically engineered to have their allergenic-causing proteins to be removed. As such, they do not contain potentially harmful proteins as compared to non-GM foods such as peanuts, cereals and eggs. Producing hypoallergenic GM foods would be a desired commodity as these foods will possess the ability to notably decrease the danger of adverse reactions. This offers the possibility of consumption by allergen-sensitive individuals, enabling to enjoy the pleasure of being able eat foods on par with normal people (Herman, 2003). Besides that, GM crops will reduce herbicides on crops that may cause reactions in our bodies. GM crops that are modified to be resistance to insects will reduce the amount of herbicides used by farmers that will cause health problems. Hormonal signaling in human cells has been discovered to be altered by a common weed killer in U.S. (ScienceDaily, 2008). In another case claimed by Gammon (2009), a top selling weed killer, Roundup, has been found to magnify the toxicity in human cells. Hence, GM crops that are enhanced with resistance towards pests are able to completely eliminate the use of herbicides and weed killers, thereby protecting consumers from herbicide-induced ailments. Environmentally friendly One of the benefits introducing GM foods is that the plantation of GM crops is environmentally affable. Currently, our world is afflicted with the issue of pollution. To rectify this problem, GM crops are modified to resistance to insect and pest attack as well as to herbicides. Additionally, another process which is applied in an effort to make GM crops environmentally friendly is phytoremediation. Therefore, pollution can be greatly reduced and eventually be eliminated altogether. 3.1 Resistance to insect and pest GM crops can be genetically engineered to show resistance toward pests. GM crops can be genetically altered to contain a gene which encodes for a specific protein which is toxic to pests. Farmers typically use many tons of chemical pesticides annually. Consumers do not wish to eat food that has been treated with pesticides because of potential health hazards, and excess waste due to agricultural use of pesticides and fertilizers could potentially pollute and harm the environment. The application of chemical pesticides can be eliminated through the growing of GM crops such as B.t. corn. B.t. corn is engineered to possess genes in their genetic make-up that encode for the creation of B.t. toxin which only specifically responsive to particular species of insect larvae and will not affect others life forms. Other environmentally friendly characteristics of B.t. toxins include biodegradability and safe for other living organisms. Varieties of sugar beet as well as winter oil-seed which have been modified to induce tolerance towards specific herbicides were scrutinized by the Bright project (Black, 2004). 3.2 Phytoremediation Phytoremediation is defined as the rectification of environmental issues through the usage of plants which alleviate the environmental problem without the need to relocate and dispose contaminant materials somewhere else. Crops of GM foods can be genetically altered to exhibit preferable characteristics, especially the ability of certain plants called hyperaccumulators to bioaccumulate, degrade or render harmless contaminants in soils, water or air (Wikipedia, 2010). For instance, genes in trees can be manipulated and conformed to absorb more carbon dioxide gas, CO2 and hence, would reduce the risk of global warming. Heavy metal pollution in contaminated soil and groundwater sources can also be assuaged by the use of such plants. Quoting Kochian (2004), Contaminated soils and waters pose major environmental, agricultural and human health problems worldwide. These problems may be partially solved by an emerging new technology phytoremediation. Pollution and contamination of the soil Opponents of GM foods claim that herbicide-resistant crops will only encourage farmers to increase the amount of herbicide used as the crops are already immune to the herbicide used and will not be affected. In order to kill pests that will harm the crops, they increase the quantity of the certain herbicide used to eradicate pests extensively. This results in pollution of the soil due to excessive usage of herbicides to kill pests at a faster rate to reduce harm inflicted upon the crops, thereby rendering the piece of land infertile or that crops grown on it may contain traces of pollutants and is hazardous should they be consumed. However, that claim is merely an assumption. As avowed by Monsanto (n.d.), the application of herbicide-resistant crops is able to decrease the number of herbicide sprays needed to keep pests at bay and this will promote environmentally reliable herbicide usage, even when used in moderation. For some crops, it is not cost-effective to remove weeds by physical means such as tilling, so farmers will often spray large quantities of different herbicides (weed-killers) to destroy weeds, a time-consuming and expensive process, which requires care so that the herbicide does not harm the crop plant or the environment. Crop plants genetically-engineered to be resistant to one effective herbicide could help prevent environmental damage by reducing the amount of herbicides needed. For example, Monsanto has created a strain of soybeans genetically modified to be not affected by their herbicide product Roundup. A farmer growing these soybeans will then only require one type of weed-killer in moderate amounts instead of multiple types, hence reducing production cost and limiting the dangers of agricultural waste run-off. Improve the quality and quantity With the population of the world growing substantially each year, significant amounts of stress are placed on resources of land fit for plantation, water, energy, as well as other biological reserves to supply sufficient food whilst sustaining the coherence of the ecosystem. As affirmed by the World Bank and the United Nations, roughly 1 to 2 billion humans suffer from malnourishment, signifying a sign of scarce food supply, low incomes and sparse allocation of food supplies (Pimentel, Huang, Cordova, Pimentel, 1996). Introduction of GM foods have greatly alleviated the problem. GM crops are modified to produce greater amounts of yield and increase the nutritional value in crop-derived foods. 4.1 Solution for world foods crisis Substantial amounts of yield are able to solve the world food crisis. Desperate pleas for richer, better-off countries to utilize genetic engineering in elucidating famines are a result of thousands losing their lives daily and millions on the verge of starvation. By revising the genetic make-up of plant strains, biotechnology will be able notably lessen world hunger. Crops can be engineered to resist diseases, resulting in the quantity of yield succumbing to disease to decrease. In another case, cold-resistant crops are able to benefit countries enduring from winter the whole year round. Extremely limited variants of crops are able to be cultivated in such countries due to the extreme condition of the environment present. By assimilating a gene enabling the crop to withstand such low temperatures, the range of crops planted will be increased and the amount of crops dying from the coldness is reduced. 4.2 Increase the quality of crops The quality of GM crops is considerably higher than unmodified crops due to their greater shelf life. When a crop ripens, bacteria and fungi are attracted, further catalyzing the decomposing process. For example, firmer tomatoes possess a higher substance to water ratio, causing them to rot at a slower, much delayed rate. In addition, the exterior appearance and flavor of the fruit are not influenced, the fruit is able to endure longer transportations which require more time, and harvest of the GM crop can be done simultaneously. Economic concern Adversaries of GM foods assert that the introduction of GM foods will give rise to economic concerns. Commercialization of GM foods is expensive and time-consuming, and agri-biotechnological companies are keen on ensuring profitable revenue for their investments. As numerous techniques for genetic manipulation and GM crops have been patented, copyright violation is among one of their biggest apprehensions. This will thereby increase the price of seeds to the extent that small-scale farmers and third world countries are unable to afford the cost of these seeds, thereby widening the wedge between the wealthy population and the poor. Though so, this argument is weak and has no sound base. Farmers stand the opportunity to reap exponential amounts of profit from the cultivation of GM crops. Money is able to be saved on the amounts of pesticides used, and a shorter period of time is required to produce desirable yield. GM foods are precise in their make-up, and unwanted genes can be replaced with preferred genes incorporated with the various benefits and advantages. Such crops are also able to be modified to exhibit resistance towards droughts or tolerance to salinity. With the world population increasing at an alarming rate and more land is required for development instead of plantation, farmers may be able plant crops on land formerly unsuitable for growing of crops. GM crops able to thrive and flourish in unfavorable conditions and extreme environments will then be able to benefit mankind. 5.0 Recommendations Firstly, GM foods should be legalized and commercialized throughout the world. Governments should show their encouragement by funding and investing in research regarding the production and testing of GM foods. Scientists must also expose the benefits and safety of GM food consumption to the public to comfort their doubts regarding GM foods. In addition, the price of GM foods must be controlled and subsidized by the government. By doing so, GM food can then be afforded by the working-class population. Advocates of GM food should show their support for the legalization of GM foods by purchasing GM food stuffs and spreading news of the benefits of GM foods. However, research and the creation of GM foods must be closely monitored so that products that might harm its consumers are not created under any circumstances. Numerous safety tests and examinations must be carried out to ensure its side effects are not harmful to human health. By doing so, better prospects for mankind can unfold in the future where world starvation and malnutrition is no longer a crisis, and human health can be maintained through the intake of GM foods. 6.0 Conclusion GM foods have raised much controversy in many nations throughout the world. People are still indecisive in their choice to consume products containing GM foods. It stands to be true that doubts concerning GM foods were widespread when first introduced to the public, but through many years of experimental analysis as well as safety tests, GM foods have been confirmed to be safe for human consumption with numerous benefits as a bonus. In fact, GM foods are essential now in resolving the crisis of hunger and scarcity of food around the world. Acceptance of GM foods are beginning to increase significantly over the years as more and more people are convinced of their benefits in terms of cost, health, and nature. Therefore, it cannot be denied that GM foods should be legalized for the benefit of mankind. As mentioned in the report, GM foods promote good human health, are environmentally friendly and (). Hence, it is irrefutable that its advantages totally outweigh its drawbacks and that GM foods are the way to go in ensuring a brighter future for us and for the whole world.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Root Canal Essay -- Health, Edodontics

The Endodontics procedures of a Therapy Root Canal Dreyonna Carroll Anthem Institute The endodontics procedures of rotary canal therapy or root canal is a procedure that is performed by a specialized general dentist, and or a endodontist. The patient develops consistent ,severe pain, discoloration, or sensitivity from food and even to touch in , or around a certain area of a tooth, and is diagnosed by a specialist to receive rotary therapy. This is if the tooth can be saved, meaning it is not to harsh of damage or decay in the root, it will then be prepared. If it can not be saved the tooth is looked at , but it will be determined to extract the tooth. The procedure takes place in the root of a infected tooth which needs special attention. The procedure can be considered as a surgical procedure, but it only consist of three visits if that, and could be completed or carried out in one day by one specialist. The endodontics procedures of therapy root canal according to (Ingle, 2009, p. 61). Root canal treatment consists of three visits; examinations, preparations and obturation. Though this was not always the case ,dentist years ago would extend treatment time for longer than what was needed. (Ingle, 2009. para.1). The root canal is found at the very bottom of the tooth near the nerve. When a patient is in need of an rotary canal treatment it is due to significant causes. Root canals are used to protect the tooth form any further decay or damage , untreated cavities are the main causes for need of root canals. Poor dental hygiene is the main cause of cavities. Cavities depending on how bad the pulp decay inside the tooth ... ...your body it will not react badly against you. (Chetan, 2008. para. 1). A permanent aesthetic cement filling is sealed over the top of the tooth which can have a crown as a placement for a definite protection of the tooth. Conversely, the Endodontics procedures of a therapy root canal , or rotary canal can be treated within a day or two depending on how severe the tooth or teeth are in need of treatment. In all this procedure is very important and should be taken into consideration if someone has a tooth issue with consistent pain or sensitivity to touch, brushing, and or eating. In other words, dental hygiene should be looked at in a positive matter and teeth should be brushed, flossed, and seen by a dentist on a regularly basis. If this goes ignored, unnoticed, or untreated it can lead up to permanent tooth extraction or the total removal of ones tooth.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Flirting: Investment and Return

Solution to Case 02 Risk and Return Flirting With Risk Questions: 1. Imagine you are Bill. How would you explain to Mary the relationship between risk and return of individual stocks? I would explain to Mary that risk and return are positively related, i. e. if one expects to earn higher returns, then one has to be willing to invest in stocks whose price can vary significantly from year to year or in different economic conditions. For example, in the table below we see that treasury bills would have yielded 4% with almost no variability, while the index fund is expected to yield 10. 1% with a standard deviation of 9. 15%. | Expected Rate of Return | |Scenari/o |Probability |Treasury Bill |Index Fund |Utility Company |High-Tech Company|Counter-Cyclical | | | | | | | |Company | |Recession |20% |4% |-2% |6% |-5% |20% | |Near Recession |20% |4% |5% |7% |2% |16% | |Normal |30% |4% |10% |9% |15% |12% | |Near Boom |10% |4% |15% |11% |25% |-9% | |Boom |20% |4% |25% |14% |45% |-20% | |Expecte d Return | |4% |10. 10% |9. 2% |15. 40% |5. % | |Standard Deviation | |0% | |2. 82% | |15. 69% | | | | |9. 15% | |17. 69% | | 2. Mary has no idea what beta means and how it is related to the required return of the stocks. Explain how you would help her understand these concepts. Beta is defined as the systematic risk of an asset. It measures the relationship between the returns of an asset and a market portfolio. Stocks that vary by more than the market have betas greater than 1 and vice-versa. The formula for calculating beta is as follows:Beta = Covariance of stock returns vis-a-vis market returns Variance of market returns According to the Security Market Line equation, Required return on a stock = Risk free rate + (Expected Market Return – Risk free rate)* Beta This shows that high beta stocks have a have a higher required rate of return than low beta stocks. Index FundUtility Co. High-Tech Co. Counter-Cyclical Co. Exp. Return10. 10%9. 2%15. 4%5. 9% Std. Deviation9. 15%2. 82%17. 69%15. 69% Cov (Rs, Rm)——–0. 00300. 0276-0. 0144Beta1. 00. 301. 86-1. 54 Required Rate10. 1%5. 84%15. 37%-5. 41% *See spreadsheet for calculations 3. How should Bill demonstrate the meaning and advantages of diversification to Mary?Diversification refers to the strategy of investing in stocks, which are not highly correlated with each other, for example, high-tech firms and utility firms, or high-tech firms and counter-cyclical firms. Diversification reduces the portfolio’s variability and thereby enables investors to earn a more stable rate of return. To demonstrate the advantages of diversification, Bill should calculate the expected return and risk (standard deviation) of a portfolio composed of equal investment in the High-Tech Co. and the Counter-Cyclical Co. —since these companies are negatively correlated with each other– and compare the results with the return and risk levels of the High-Tech Co. by itself. | | | | | 50-50 Po rtfolio | | |Scenario |Probability | High-Tech Co. |Counter-Cyclical Co. |50-50 Portfolio |Prob. *E(Portfolio Return) |[Rp-E(Rp)]^2 | | | | | | | |*Ps | |Recession |20% |-5% |20% |7. 50% |1. 50% |0. 000198 | |Near Recession |20% |2% |16% |9. 00% |1. 80% |0. 00054 | |Normal |30% |15% |12% |13. 50% |4. 05% |0. 000244 | |Near Boom |10% |25% |-9% |8. 00% |0. 80% |0. 000070 | |Boom |20% |45% |-20% |12. 50% |2. 50% |0. 000068 | |Expected Return | | 15. 40% |5. 90% | |10. 5% | | |Standard Deviation | | 17. 69% |15. 69% | | |2. 52% | The data in the table above shows that a portfolio comprised of equal investment in High-Tech Co. and Counter-Cyclical Co. stock would provide an expected rate of return that would be in between the returns of the two stocks with an expected risk level that would be much smaller than either of the two stocks’ expected standard deviation. 4. Using a suitable diagram explain how Bill could use the security market line to show Mary which stocks could be und ervalued and which may be overvalued? [pic] Stock |Beta |Required Return |Expected Return | |T-Bill |0. 00 |4% |4. 00% | |Index Fund |1. 00 |10. 10% |10. 10% | |Utility Co. |0. 30 |5. 84% |9. 20% | |High-Tech Co. |1. 86 |15. 37% |15. 40% | |Counter-Cyclical Co. |-1. 54 |-5. 41% |5. 90% | The solid line represents the required rates of return of the 5 investment alternatives as per the Security Market Line equation.Those stocks whose expected returns are higher than their required returns plot above the line and are considered to be undervalued (Counter-Cyclical Co. , Utility Co. and High-Tech Co. ) while those that plot below the line are considered to be over-valued. 5. During the presentation. Mary asks Bill â€Å" Let’s say I choose a well diversified portfolio, what effect will interest rates have on my portfolio? How should Bill respond? A well-diversified portfolio is one that is closely correlated to the market index. Real interest rates are typically inversely relate d to stock prices. Hence, if interest rates increase, Mary’s portfolio return will decrease by as much as the market index does and vice versa. In other words, her portfolio will mirror the changes in the market index. 6.Should Bill take Mary out of investing in stocks and preferably put all her money in fixed-income securities? Explain. Not necessarily. Mary could still invest in a well-diversified portfolio such as the market index fund. The problem with fixed-income securities is that they have reinvestment and price risk. By holding a well-diversified portfolio of stocks, Mary can enjoy a reasonably good rate of return over the long term. Fixed-income securities have been known to barely keep up with inflation. 7. Mary tells Bill, â€Å"I keep hearing stories about how people have made thousands of dollars by following their brokers’ â€Å"hot tips. Can you give me some hot tips regarding undervalued stocks? † How should Bill respond?Bill should discourage Mary from taking speculative positions in common stock, given her age and lifecycle status. He should caution her about the riskiness associated with stock price volatility and remind her again about the advantages of diversification. 8. If Mary decided to invest her money equally in high-tech and counter-cyclical stocks. What would her portfolio’s expected return and risk level be? Are these expectations realistic? Please explain. With equal investments in High-Tech and Counter-Cyclical stocks, the portfolio expected return would be 10. 65% and its expected standard deviation would be 2. 52%. (see Answer 3 above for details). These expectations are only as realistic as the numbers used to calculate them.Thus, one has to make realistic assumptions regarding probabilities and returns, in order to get realistic expected return estimates. 9. What would happen if Mary were to put 70% of her portfolio in the High-Tech stock and 30% in the Index Fund? Would this combination be bett er for her? Explain. |Scenario |Probability | High-Tech |Index Fund | 70-30 |Prob. *E(Portfolio) | {[Rp-E(Rp)]^2}*Ps | | | | | |Portfolio | | | |Recession |20% |-5% |-2% |-4. 10% |-0. 82% |0. 06415362 | |Near Recession |20% |2% |5% |2. 90% |0. 58% |0. 002380562 | |Normal |30% |15% |10% |13. 50% |4. 05% |2. 883E-06 | |Near Boom |10% |25% |15% |22. 00% |2. 20% |0. 000670761 | |Boom |20% |45% |25% |39. 00% |7. 80% |0. 012690722 | |Expected Return | |15. 0% |10. 10% | |13. 81% | | |Standard Deviation | |17. 69% |9. 15% | | |14. 89% | Given the above table, it seems clear that the 70-30 portfolio composed of High-Tech and the index fund would not necessarily be better for Mary, since it has a much higher expected level of risk (14. 89% versus 2. 52%) and only a slightly higher level of expected return (13. 81% versus 10. 65%) visa vis the 50-50 portfolio of High-Tech and the Counter-Cyclical Co.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Essays on Literature Essay

1. How does societal condition affects in the past and present literary production? Literature is a mirror by which societal condition is reflected. This means that literary reproduction is often determined by the events that affect the lives of the people or the writer himself. For instance, if we are going to trace the evolution of Philippine Literature, we will be able to conjure up the ghost of the vanished centuries long before the coming of the Spaniards. During this period, literary production attained slow growth. We can generally infer that oral lore is the starting point of our literary heritage. Though, Alibata – the old Filipino alphabet is already known during this era, the production is very limited to writings on dried leaves, bamboo, or bark of a tree which aside from the fact that they were burned by the Spanish colonizer, they are often said to be perishable which could not last the test of time. Thus during this era, literature flourished through word of mouth. The slow growth of literary production prevailed not until the concerned literary geniuses are born and seriously compiled them as significant and immortal heritage. These, happened along with the introduction of papers and printing press where literary production gained stature and skyrocketed to a towering height. The industrialization of the society which was brought by the colonizers became an elixir of interest in writings. New types of Literature were produced such as, but not limited to, essays which commonly appeared in periodicals, novels such as Noli Me Tangere and the El Filibusterismo and other genre. In short, economic condition of the society affects literary production. It is evident in transformation from oral tradition, then to writings on perishable materials and eventually the introduction of ink, papers and printing press. Consequently, political conditions of the society can also be a determining factor for literary production. In the past centuries the content of the literature is influence by the church, writings were religious in tone. It shifted into nationalism and patriotism spearheaded by the propagandist. Then, with the coming of American colonizer, the idea of liberalism and democracy were introduced In the modern era, literary production attains even more awesome height with the establishment of factories of intellect – colleges and universities, where Filipino intellectual giants are continuously produced. They are the assets of Philippine literature. Thus, writings in different fields are unabatedly flourishing to portray the society. 2. What is the literary perspective in terms of time and subject of literary work? Literary perspectives in terms of time and subject can be further define as the focus or theme of a certain writing with respect to when the piece was written and how its time frame or the historical background affected the main concern of the literature. These are actually one of the critical approaches in the study of literature. It is a general notion that historical backgrounds of the society or the biographical background of the author influence the subject of a piece. It is essential to investigate and critically analyze the history for it will serve as the key to understand and evaluate the piece o literature. Much in the same way is the critical analysis of the traces of the life of the author for it has a significant effect on the theme structure and presentation of his writings. To clearly illustrate this notion let us consider the poem â€Å"When I see a Barong-Barong† by Maximo Ramos (1946). â€Å"When I see a Barong-Barong neighborhood In the heart of war-torn Manila† Here the word barong-barong significantly portrays the racial background of Ramos. It is a common symbol of a Filipino who still proudly standing after the Filipino-American War which he expressed on the second line â€Å"war-torn Manila†. It is certain that Ramos was able to portray in his poem the situation of the Filipinos during the period where they gained freedom after nearly a half thousands years of slavery under the colonizers. We can notice here how the time frame is noteworthy in each piece of literature. The subject may vary depending on the events that captured the emotion and intellect of the writer. This view of literary perspective is commonly known as Historical-Biographical Approach. 3. What make a writer in a certain literary period produce a literary piece As clearly stated by Kahayon and Zulueta, man’s thoughts and emotions that are coached in a beautiful language is literature. In other words, literature is a means of expressing the writer’s heart and mind. His feelings, aspirations, grieve, love, sentiments and others are best highlighted through literature. For instance, literary focus shifted from a religious tone toward patriotism and nationalism. This is known as the period of enlightenment. Distinct writers during the period like Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Apolinario Mabini, Emilio Jacinto, Jose Palma and others express their sentiments and aspirations for freedom through writings which eventually enrich the nationalistic behavior of our Filipino comrades who bravely fought against the 300-year-slavery under foreign conquerors. The barbaric Spanish occupation intensifies the strong will of the propagandist and revolutionaries to revolt against the dynamic force. Rizal’s â€Å"My Last Farewell† expresses his grief for his fatherland and his willingness to drench it with his own blood – his most admirable heroic deed – to revive its people and regain the freedom. Likewise Andress Bonifacio – the father of Filipino democracy wrote â€Å"Pag-Ibig Sa Tinubuang Lupa† which expresses his greatest love for our fatherland which paved the way for revolution. In short writers are able to write literary piece in a certain period as their response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy in his environment and ultimately after laborious or bloody struggle for freedom and the happiness to reach his Devine Creator. Just like what Rizal said: â€Å"For I go where no slave before the oppressor bends Where faith can never kill, and God reigns o’er on high† 4. How does a literary product helps shape society? Give specific example. Literature is powerful. It has the ability to touch one’s life, transform the society from one condition to another and eventually shape the entire society. It can redefine culture and traditions and polish political situations. It can amazingly revive the forgotten centuries and immortalize people, places and events. The Filipino people, before the coming of the Spaniards were believed to be the servant of nature. They worship trees, stones, water, sun and anitos. Their religion is animalistic in nature. However, when the Spaniards set foot on the Philippine shore, the world’s sacred writings – the Holy Bible spread in the archipelago and educate our forefathers and consequently the modern generation. It redefines our belief, behavior, culture and traditions. It becomes a tool for the enlightenment of the society and brings order in every institution. Literature has the ability to polished political situation. Harriet Beecher Stowe of the US vividly convey the sad fate of slaves in his â€Å"Uncle Tom’s Cabin† which became the basis of democracy. He emphasized that black American should have equal rights with the whites. His masterpiece severely criticized the racial discrimination which in due course led to the recognition of the rights of the black American. In the Philippines, the writings of the propagandist and revolutionaries assuage the sufferings of the Filipinos. The Noli Me Tangere exposed the evils of the Spaniard and the fake and hungry-wolves-like Spanish friars. It heightens the nationalism. Finally, literature as a great ocean of thought that is piled from the vanished centuries immortalized the characters of Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas and other great Philosopher who molded the morality, virtue and ethical standard of the society. 5. How does a piece of literary product help you mold you life? Literature is an indispensable aspect of my life as a student of Teacher Education Program. This is a viable tool in facing the complexities of the challenges of Teaching. Through reading different literary works from around the world such as English and American, Afro-Asian and other famous literature I was able to indulge in the richness of our second language. It laid the foundation of strong human being which is vital as I enter the world of Teaching. It gives me a full grasp of why Teaching is the noblest profession. I appreciate my career to a great extent which more than words can express. Reading patiently from the works of famous writers of different generations enables me to experience life vicariously, thus widening the horizon in tracing the little rills of humankind which help me in my voyage to a great ocean of thought. I admire the writings of our Filipino comrade, for they instill great values of being a Filipino – a distinct race among the rest in the world. It might be corny to say but I am proud to express that through the writings of Rizal, Bonifacio, Santos, Palma and other Filipino writers – I am a Filipino. Most of all – what I love among the world’s masterpieces which I am struggling to understand with the guidance of the Devine Providence – The Holy Bible. This is the sacred writings which I can turn to in any moment of my life. The kind of literature that we read defines our character. They say: â€Å"Tell me who your friends and I will tell you who you are. † I say: â€Å"Tell me what you read and I will tell you who you are. †

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Samantha Srinivasan Essays - Friedrich Nietzsche, Free Essays

Samantha Srinivasan Essays - Friedrich Nietzsche, Free Essays Samantha Srinivasan Philosophy 101-01 Prof. Evans Dec. 16, 1998 Paper Assignment: Topic #3 Nietzsche is known as a philosopher who was very poetic in his writings. He used a real Persian prophet named Zarathustra, as his character within his philosophy. The way Plato used Socrates, Nietzsche used Zarathustra?s mouth to speak his philosophy. An example, how Nietzsche uses Zarathustra in his book is in the chapter entitled ? On the Tree on the Mountain.? Within this chapter, the story represents certain aspects that are important to Zarathustra (Nietzsche). The chapter begins, with Zarathustra noticing that a youth was avoiding him, but later encounters him in the mountains. The chapter further continues, with the fact that Zarathustra finally speaks to the youth and asks him why he is afraid. Zarathustra continues talking to the youth by telling him a parable about a tree that is waiting for something on the mountainside. The youth tries to confine with Zarathustra, and Zarathustra advises him to not give up his hope and freedom in life. This chapter clearly relates to the notion of the overman. In Zarathustra?s Prologue, when Zarathustra speaks to a crowd of people in a town who are waiting for a tightrope performance. He speaks to the people of the overman as the meaning of the earth. Zarathustra quotes,? Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth!? Therefore, in this chapter of ? On the Tree on the Mountainside ? Zarathustra compares a tree waiting something from the earth because he speaks about how the tree keeps growing from the earth taller and taller each day. He also states that surely the tree is waiting for the first lighting, which signfly as waiting for the overman by giving your whole self. Zarathustra also stated how he beseeched his brothers and sisters to remain faithful to the earth, and to not believe those who speak of otherworldly hopes. In other words he is saying that the most dreadful thing is to go against the overman which then doesn?t make meaning of the earth. So in essence the youth represents those individuals who are at the break of being missed lead into a false dead God. Therefore, the tree also represents those individuals who are waiting for that special unfalsed God ,but they didn?t know what it was. Zarathustra advised the youth no matter what happens he should not lose his sense of freedom and hope because if he loses his determination than he was a lost soul. The youth also tells that Zarathustra that he is correct because he has longed and waited for something not knowing what it is. So Zarathustra?s advice means that yes we are searching for something, and our answer is in the earth, the overman. This chapter explains how Zarathustra was determined to bring the overman to everyone, and also explaining to the people that we are like the TREE who waits. Samantha Srinivasan Philosophy 101-01 Prof. Evans Dec. 16, 1998 Paper Assignment: Topic #3 Nietzsche is known as a philosopher who was very poetic in his writings. He used a real Persian prophet named Zarathustra, as his character within his philosophy. The way Plato used Socrates, Nietzsche used Zarathustra?s mouth to speak his philosophy. An example, how Nietzsche uses Zarathustra in his book is in the chapter entitled ? On the Tree on the Mountain.? Within this chapter, the story represents certain aspects that are important to Zarathustra (Nietzsche). The chapter begins, with Zarathustra noticing that a youth was avoiding him, but later encounters him in the mountains. The chapter further continues, with the fact that Zarathustra finally speaks to the youth and asks him why he is afraid. Zarathustra continues talking to the youth by telling him a parable about a tree that is waiting for something on the mountainside. The youth tries to confine with Zarathustra, and Zarathustra advises him to not give up his hope and freedom in life. This chapter clearly relates to the notion of the overman. In Zarathustra?s Prologue, when Zarathustra speaks to a crowd of people in a town who are waiting for a tightrope performance. He speaks to the people of the overman as the meaning of the earth. Zarathustra quotes,? Let your will say: the overman shall be

Monday, November 4, 2019

Critical review of Collier and Fearons articles Essay

Critical review of Collier and Fearons articles - Essay Example Fearon and Laitin had taken data for the period of 1945 to 1999 from 161 countries which had minimum half a million population. On the other hand, Collier and Hoeffler have focused on the data from 1960 to 1999 of 98 countries and have used econometric model to predict civil war. The paper would critically review the articles for the operational definitions and measurements of key theoretical concepts for their validity and reliability. The article broadly tries to examine the various factors that may lead to civil unrest and insurgency in countries across the across. The authors have used the data on 161 countries for the period 1945 to 1999, made available from Singer and Small, 1994 and updated to include Kargil and Eritrean wars. They have consciously scrutinized and refuted the three popular beliefs which could have caused civil wars. They are: prevalence of civil war in 1990s was due to cold war and changing pattern of societies across the world after WWII; ethnic and religious diversity facilitate make countries vulnerable to internal conflicts and civil wars; and ethnic and political grievances are strong contenders for propelling civil wars. The authors have concluded that the major cause that may lead to civil war and insurgency is the socio-economic conditions of the regions where poverty is rampant. The article has extensively looked at various factors of unrest like civil war, insurgency and ethnicity. Civil war is broadly defined as public revolt against the state policies that tries to overpower the state machineries of administration to gain leverage. Ethnicity describes the demographic segmentation of the population based on culture, race and color. Insurgency is the most violent form of internal conflict where armed groups, using guerrilla techniques attack civilians and government machineries for their vested interests. Thus, insurgency primarily is associated with killing and threats to damage of public private property in order to

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Blog 3 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Blog 3 - Essay Example To the contemporary period in which we live in, the two quotes, that is, the Quran verse and the Hadith by Prophet Muhammad play, as they were initially intended, to put greater emphasis on the need for human brotherhood and the practicing of the virtues of goodness of good actions. Essentially human beings are known to have a moral sense of ensuring that they live peacefully amongst themselves and in the current context of the life we live, the Quran verse and the Hadith from the prophet implore us to love each other and help each other (Gauss145-152). The current times are full of various evil deeds propagated by human beings; hence, it would only be essential that brotherhood among human beings is encouraged. As a virtue, the brotherhood will enable one to restrain from doing bad towards another but, only practice good actions (Gauss 102-109). Therefore, this elaborates on the significance of human morality in the former and current